Design for water and energy efficiency

Which hot water service will you use ?


Use less hot water

Avoid 5 minutes of hot water rinsing every day saves half a tonne of greenhouse gas each year. Water efficient taps can also save hot water and greenhouse gas: save up to a kilogram of greenhouse gas for every five minutes of tap use.

Water heating

Every 15 litres of hot water used from an electric water heater generates about one kilogram of greenhouse gas.

Greenhouse gas emissions from an electric HWS (based on 140 litres usage per day)

Capture heat before it is lost


Australian households had a "water footprint" equivalent to 341,000 litres per person per year. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2007

Water use 2000-01- Australian economy consumes 50 Sydney harbour's

Australian households and businesses consumed the equivalent of almost 50 times the volume of Sydney Harbour (24,909 gigalitres GL) according to figures released by the Australian Bureau of Statistics.

Water is essential to all life on earth. It is also essential to our lifestyle, to our industries and to the well-being of our communities. Population growth has led to the consumption of greater amounts of water — and the per capita consumption has also been increasing at an average rate of 3% per annum for the last 100 years.

23% of domestic water consumption …occurs in the garden.’

The Seven Key Principles used to save garden water are :

Planning and designing gardens for local conditions and micro-climates

Careful analysis and improvement of soils

Reducing lawn areas

Designing and implementing efficient watering systems


Choosing appropriate plants

Appropriate maintenance

Reduce Lawn Areas and You Can Reduce Water Usage

Lawn is the thirstiest part of the garden. There are many ways by which water consumption on lawns can be reduced. You could:


The use of mulches is an essential step in water conservation. Mulch is a layer of material applied as a surface dressing

to garden soils in order to reduce water loss through evaporation. Organic mulches are preferred since:

They can be incorporated into the soil to improve structure, water-holding and water absorption.

They encourage micro-organisms and worm activity in the soil and thus its fertility.

They can be weed-suppressing.

They allow the passage of rain-water into the soil.

Design and Implement an Efficient Watering System

Applying supplementary water to your garden to ensure its good health and vigour is not wrong, but water should be applied efficiently and at appropriate times. Consider these pointers to efficient irrigation:


DID YOU KNOW? Some surprising facts about water

Areas of average domestic usage Average Reticulated Water Usage



Domestic water use comprises indoor and outdoor usage.

How much water is used, in general household activities?

Toilet flush(single flush cistern)
Shower (10 minutes)
Dishwasher load
Washing machine load
Brushing teeth with tap running
Drinking, cooking, cleaning per Person per day
Hand basin per use
Garden sprinkler per hour
Garden dripper per hour
Car washing with hose
Hosing driveway
Total daily consumption per household

12 litres
100 litres
200 litres
50 litres
150 litres
5 litres
10 litres
5 litres
1000 litres
4 litres
200 litres
100 litres
900 litres

Key Changes Needed